Walnut can grow in large parts of Russia.It belongs to the most valuable tree species.By the number of positive properties nut is almost no equal among the other members of the plant kingdom.
tree grows quickly, generously and fruits for quite a long time.Growing walnut improve health and provide the body with high-quality high-grade product.Suffice to plant 2-3 trees on the site to get the required number of delicious, nutritious and healthy harvest.On the basis of the walnut fruit can be cooked many different dishes and condiments, as well as to make effective medicines.
Many gardeners are interested in how to grow walnut to make it durable and brings joy to many generations of its kind.In this article, we describe the method of propagation and cultivation of this tree.
Walnut in Moscow: growing
Walnut - high spreading tree, which has very large leaves, pale gray bark and famous all over the world benefits.
Today it is very difficult to find a suburban area, which would not grow walnuts.In
Many are interested in the question of how to grow walnut.Multiplies it in two ways: by seeds and vegetatively (by grafting).
Growing walnut seed is the main method of reproduction.The seeds are harvested only from the local forms of walnut.Choose healthy, without significant damage to winter tree-testis, which has good growth, and has an annual high yield (at least 20-25 kg of dry walnuts).The fruits of the tree should be large.The kernel - well done and can be easily removed.Time harvesting of seeds is determined by the appearance of maturity and pericarp (hull).If it is green or has already started to crack easily separated at the incision, the seeds can be harvested.
technology of growing walnut seed is as follows: first of all collected nuts purified from the pericarp and dried for a week in the sun, and then under a canopy on mesh racks.The final drying and storage is carried out in a dry place at a temperature of + 19-20 ° C.For drop-off are selected only healthy, regular shape nuts.
Sow seeds in autumn.The main way to prepare is their stratification, without which plated nuts germinate for a long time.In addition, you can not get lined material for planting.
duration and mode of stratification depends mainly on the thickness of the nutshell:
- Tolstokorov seeds - about 90-100 days when the air temperature 0-7 ° C;
- nuts, having an average and a thin shell, - 35-45 days at 16-18 ° C.
However, even those nuts that have been stratification are uneven germination period - their naklevyvanie may take more than 20 days.To expedite the process proceed as follows.
Before you spend landing, nuts stand for a while at a temperature of 15-18 ° C zapeskovannymi until they naklyunutsya.Then they are sorted on the germinated and sprouted and seeded separately.
If the number of small seeds, the best results are achieved during the picking of seedlings.Stratification is performed 10 to 15 March, at a temperature of 14-18 ° C.
nuts Germination begins in late April.For planting seedlings are used, with 2 leaves.Dive conducted in three terms.Before landing at the end of each plant pinch taproot.
for sowing seeds and seedlings used picks are well prepared fertile soil warmed up to 10 ° C.Distance in rows - 10-15 cm.
Large nuts are planted at a depth of 10 cm, the small and medium - at 7-9 cm. To sprouts seedlings have to get straight in the prepared hole nut spread sideways, on edge.
During the first years in the open ground seedlings are growing rather slowly.To grow a stock to take up to 3 years, and the cultivation of walnut seedlings suitable for planting in the garden, it may take 5-7 pet.
therefore considered a more efficient way of growing seedlings in the greenhouse film.In this case, in a year output standard rootstocks reaches 55-60%, while 2-year growing about 90% of the seedlings are fit for planting in the garden, a permanent place.
seedlings begin to bear fruit after about 8-12 years.
Industrial cultivation of walnut grafting
One of the main methods of vegetative propagation of walnuts is budding in the open field.Term budding determined by the sum of average daily temperatures (it should be above 10 ° C).The optimal duration for the budding - 12-16 days, the survival rate is 60-90% of eyes.
walnut production in a manner of reproduction is necessary to preserve the positive qualities of the fruit of the parent tree.
Since walnut is large enough kidneys when the budding take an enlarged panel of bark, which over a period of the healing of his eye will provide the necessary amount of water and nutrients.Places vaccination strapped polyethylene or PVC film.
However, even in not very cold winters approximately 90% of established buds to fall due to their lack of hardiness dies.Therefore okulirovannye seedlings in the autumn, after leaf fall, they dig up and store until spring in the basement or other storage at a temperature of about 0 ° C.
spring, after heating the soil up to 10 ° C, okulyanty planted directly in the nursery.By the end of the first year of the same age grow up to 102-168 cm. Now they are suitable for planting in the garden.
Vaccination can be carried out in the winter and in the greenhouse.To do this, rootstocks are dug in autumn and kept at zero temperature prikopat in a basement or any ground storage.
Likewise, stored and walnut cuttings harvested in the fall.In mid-March, approximately 15 days prior to vaccination, rootstocks are planted in a cylindrical plastic bags (diameter of 10-15 cm, height 20-25 cm) filled with fertile soil, and transferred to the greenhouse, where the temperature is 24-25 ° C.
Cuttings few days before vaccination and placed in a greenhouse in moist sawdust and steamed.
When the scion starts to grow, the plants harden, thereby accustoming them to the outside and a cold dry air.After the end of spring frosts are planted directly in the nursery.
for landing a permanent place of seedlings are suitable within 2 years.Grafted plants begin to bear fruit already on the 3-4th year after planting.
space for wood
Before you start growing a walnut, you need to decide how much he will be given a place in the future.It must be remembered that the tree will produce the highest yield only in good light, so you may even have to sacrifice some near growing trees.25-30-year-old walnut crown has a diameter of 8-12 m (depending on the type of wood and soil fertility).
Planting and growing
If you decide to plant in the garden of walnut, planting, cultivation and the formation of young trees should be carried out as follows:
- choose the place that best suitable for planting.
- digs a hole about 1 m deep.
- land remaining after excavation is mixed with rotted humus in the amount of 8-10 kg and special fertilizers.This is done to better supply of wood.
- seeds are laid at a depth of 15 cm. It should ensure that the fruit does not lay down the sharp side and stitch up.Otherwise, the wood over time will not bear fruit.
plants should be planted so that the root collar was covered with earth no more than 4-5 cm.
How are saplings
Acceptable 3 types of crowns:
important to make a bookmark of skeletal branches in the first tier, and in the future could well form the tree itself itself.When Superior-type longline crown after planting a tree trunk at a height slightly shortened 130-140 cm. In the future, the young shoots near the trunk (at a height of 90-100 cm) have to break off.Leaves in the crown area 3 or 4 side branches that grow in different directions, and the center conductor (next spring to form the second tier of its shortened by 70-100 cm).
further pruning is carried out only by removing the growing inside crown and damaged branches.It is usually done in the spring.
walnut production involves watering the young trees in the spring and summer, when they need quite a lot of water.On each tree will take about 3 buckets of water per 1 sq.meter of soil.Water the tree 2 times a month.Trees above 4 m in height are watered less intensively.
Trees need to fertilize 2 times a year - in spring and autumn.In the spring, making nitrogen fertilizer, and in the fall - special potash and phosphate.Mature trees need 7-8 kg of ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, 8-9 kg and 2 kg of potassium salt.
We have already discussed what features a walnut.Cultivation and care for the trees and we have described.Now let's talk about the harvest.
nuts collection period is determined by a green husk.When they begin to burst, you can start assembly.Once the crop is harvested, the fruit is recommended to hold for a week in the basement.After that they will be easier to clean and softened by the blackened husk.To
during cleaning nuts not to soil your hands, you need to wear rubber gloves.Fruits contain a lot of iodine, so the hands are black.After cleaning, the nuts should be rinsed with water and dried in the sun.