Now the modern realities of the economy are such that the crisis affecting the banking business and almost all areas of production, forcing the majority of wealthy people look for new, more reliable ways of investing their free capital from its further depreciation.As it is known, works of art, paintings and antiques can both increase in value or decrease.That is why today, as sharply increased interest in collecting old and rare coins.
science that studies and description of coins and medals, called numismatics.Specialists in these subjects or simple collectors are called numismatists.
the first time in Europe's interest in the old antique coins and began to emerge as early as the Renaissance.At first they were seen only in terms of aesthetics, and nobody considered as a monument to the currency.
believed that a fairly large collection of ancient Roman pennies had a famous Italian poet Petrarch, who lived in the years 1304-1374, as his passion was numismatics.Coins, more precisely,
As you know, in the XVI century aristocratic castles and royal palaces were already more than 900 Muntz-cabinet, which houses many ancient coins.There were special officers, whose duties include description and attribution of coins.However, their work does not have any certainty as a lack of knowledge they made their predictions.
History of numismatics as a science
founder of numismatics is considered to be a professor of archeology Eckel (1737-1798), who taught at the University of Vienna.He first came up with the idea that it is necessary to organize the coins by geographical and historical principle.After a long and hard work from his pen book "The Science of ancient coins" in eight volumes.
Already in the XVIII century in European universities in Saxony and Sweden read the first lectures on science, called a beautiful word "numismatics".Coins in this time have become viewed from the perspective of art history and archeology.
can say that in Russian numismatics appears at the moment when Peter I in 1721, brought to St. Petersburg coin collection, bought from an antique dealer in Hamburg Modersa and put it in the museum.The first work written on the topic of Bayer circulation of coins in Russia, was published in St. Petersburg in 1734.Yet in his work also found a large number of inaccuracies.And only in the middle of the last century it began to be applied to the numismatics truly scientific approach.
why money made from silver
Since time immemorial, mankind began to use silver for making money, as it has all the necessary characteristics for their production - extraordinary plasticity and visual appeal, which persisted for a long time.
must say that the silver coin in its composition is always an impurity of a metal, and often it is copper.It gives considerable resistance to wear silver.The metal in its pure form is almost never used for the production of money.The exception in our time are only bullion coins.In Russia, the silver as a means of payment used since ancient times up to the early 30s of the last century.
Modern Russian banks annually produces many instances of collectible coins of high quality, different weights and denominations.They had long been used as a means of payment.The same money coins and Sberbank.Silver coins out very limited numbers, and are used either as souvenirs or settle in the collectible coin sets.
most rare coins is a so-called tetradrachm Etna as it reached our days in a single copy.For the first time about it it became known in 1867 when it acquired the Castellani brothers who lived in Rome.In 1882 they sold it to the antique dealer from Belgium Lucien de Hirsch.Two years after his death the entire collection of ancient coins was given to relatives of the Belgian state, including silver tetradrachm Etna.Since then, she was kept in the Royal Library in Brussels.She put on public display in a museum in Jerusalem.
Silver Tetradrachm Etna there are already more than 2500 years.It was made in Sicily in 476 BC.17.23 grams Weight of coin, and the diameter - 26 mm.Reverse is decorated with head satire and obverse - sitting on the throne of Zeus thunder with lightning in his hand.
Interestingly, it was found more ancient coins that date back to the XII century.BC, but Aetna tetradrachm differs from them for its stunning engraving and perfect condition.This coin ever sold at auction, but if it happened, the specialists numismatists believe that its value could exceed $ 12 million, which is much higher than the price of the most expensive coin in the world - the American Double Eagle gold coinage.But while this rarity put up for sale do not plan to.
One of the most famous in the world of Antiquities is an ancient silver coin "The Ides of March."It is a denarius of silver, minted in the Roman Empire and dedicated to the murder of Julius Caesar, which took place March 15, 44 BC.e.
almost all of its copies are made of silver, but two samples are known, made of gold.One of these coins were put on public display at the British Museum.
now in private collections and public funds are more than 60 pieces of these coins.On their obverse side a portrait of the murderer of Julius Caesar - Brutus, and the reverse - a cap and a pair of daggers with words EID MAR, meaning "The Ides of March", ie. E. The date of death of the emperor.
Georgian Rare coins
During the years of the Soviet Union, many researchers have studied very carefully the eastern numismatics and, in particular, coins of Georgia.
minted in Tbilisi Abbasid dirhams - a very rare coin.The first and most famous of them released in 825-826, and the last - in 942-943 years.Unfortunately, not all the money's kept.That is why every new instance of great interest for the history of Georgia, and for numismatics.
Abaz - is another ancient Georgian silver coin.It was used in the early XVII century.Its name is connected with the name of the king of Persia Abbas I the Great, who ruled from 1571 to 1629.
In 1605 - 1606 years Abaz minted from silver weighing 10-11 grams and a diameter of 25-26 mm.The front side was depicted a lion with a bent tail, and around him - floral pattern, which occupies all the available space.On the reverse side - two curved and intersecting lines, and in the middle - a lion, but smaller.This coin is stored in the Hermitage as an antique exhibit.
At the end of the XVIII century Persian state was gradually weaken and almost lost control of small khans in the Caucasus, which at the time was a large number.The country was divided into small domains with their rulers.Finally, the Georgian kings became independent.Transcaucasian khanate started to make their money in silver.
After Georgia was annexed by the Russian Empire, in Tiflis organized another mint.Silver Abaz here became the basis of the monetary system.He was equal to the Russian 20 kopecks.In addition, there are two denomination: poluabaz - a 10 and a double Abaz - 40 kopecks.
On the front side of the coin was the emblem of Tbilisi - stone crown with teeth and the words "Tbilisi", and bottom - the branch of the olive tree and palm leaves.On the reverse side - face and the words "the Georgian silver."
Money Tsarist Russia
Royal silver coins have always been of high quality and purity of the alloy, even in those times when it is the most severe financial crises.That is why these objects weighing a few grams, are not only historical, but also aesthetic interest for its owner.
Russian imperial coins are quite diverse and can take its rightful place in the collections of collectors, numismatists.It should be noted that the history of money is extremely fun and rewarding.Take the date of June 20, 1810, when the manifesto was adopted, according to which the main currency of the Russian Empire was approved by the ruble.Its composition - Silver 4 spool 21 share, or '18 This silver coin now become legitimate currency and lasted for the whole XIX century.
From 1839 to 1843 was another major monetary reform, which resulted in rapidly depreciating paper money replaced by new banknotes.Now, one silver ruble gave 3 rubles and 50 kopecks in banknotes.How much is a silver ruble now?Its price ranges from 870 to 60 thousand. Rubles, depending on the circulation and condition of the coin.
Royal coins relating to the XIX century, are common, as they are produced in huge circulations.Therefore, they can get even a common collector at a very affordable price.As for the rare instances, the cost can reach several tens of thousands of dollars.
Perhaps the most mysterious and famous coin of tsarist Russia could be called Konstantinovsky silver ruble.It is surprising, first of all, the name itself, since it is well known that the emperor named Constantine never existed.
all started after the death of Alexander I, who had no children.Therefore, his place was to take his brother Konstantin Pavlovich.But in 1819 he voluntarily abdicated, and knew about it only a few confidants.After 4 years, I was made manifest Alexander I, in which all power passed to a third brother - Nicholas Pavlovich.It became known only after the package has been printed with the manifesto in the State Council.But the fact that the Guards had swore allegiance to Constantine.Thinking that he was forced to relinquish power, a secret society of Decembrists and the soldiers under their leadership refused to take the oath to the new king.But as you know, the uprising was crushed, the rebels sent to prison, and Nicholas I ascended the throne.
I must say that at that time the country two weeks remained without a ruler.Deciding to play it safe, ruler Petersburg Mint decided to make a test sample with the image of Constantine in denominations of 1 ruble.
All were released 6 Konstantinovsky coins.Until 1878, they were classified and then divided among the relatives of the emperor.Two of them are now kept in museums in Russia, one - in the US, and the rest - in private collections in different countries.Its estimated value at auction may exceed 100 thousand. Dollars.
Coins of Emperor Nicholas I and Nicholas II
coins during the reign of Nicholas I (1825-1855) is often coined to any memorials, and this tradition was started with his rise to power.So there was in 1834 a silver coin with the image of Alexander Column in 1839 - with the Borodino chapel, and in 1841 - a coin in honor of the marriage of the heir in denominations of one and a half rubles.
The money had treatment not only in the Russian Empire, but also in Poland.For example, the Polish zloty was equal to 15 kopecks and 20 cents - to 40 pennies.During his reign silver coin was issued in denominations of 5, 10, 20.25 cents and fifty dollars, as well as one and a half rubles.
coins issued by Nicholas II (1895 - 1917), show severe and tragic events in the life of the country.This emperor ascended the throne when everything began to show increasing revolutionary sentiments.His reign had on troubled times, tearing the country.Early in his reign, the Minister of Finance Witte conducted a large-scale monetary reform.They were issued gold coins large denomination.Also, do not forget about the small money.Were put into use coins denominated 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50 cents and the ruble.
In 1896 came the special, the so-called coronation, the ruble of silver in an amount of 190 thousand. Pieces.They were distributed to the participants at the coronation.Above the portrait of Emperor Alexander I worked as an artist Vasyutinskiy.Since then, the money passed from generation to generation and is quite well preserved, so these coins Nikolaev are not very expensive.
necessary to emphasize the money issued in 1898.These coins were dedicated to the opening of the monument to Alexander II.Their minted only 5 thousand. Copies, and their back side was pictured this particular monument.Also in 1912 came another memorable silver ruble, now dedicated to the discovery of the statue of Emperor Alexander III.They were produced even less - 2 thousand. Copies.The two collector coins are extraordinary demand because of its small circulation.
As can be seen in almost every era coin reign of Emperor Nicholas I and Nicholas II were sealed interesting events, history and grandeur of the Russian Empire.Post-revolutionary
Design of money in the Soviet Union was supposed to contain the heraldry of the state, as well as implement financial and ideological ideas that require thoughtful image on both sides of the coin.And in 1923 he was finally drafted and approved.Silver coins of the USSR began to produce in 1924.
downside of 50 cents was framed figure working with a hammer in raised hands standing in front of an anvil.In the background are the feet of the plow, the hammer and the gear.
The reverse of the silver ruble, released in 1924, depicts figures of the workers and peasants.According to the first ideological conception shows the path of a second to a better life.In the background of this composition - the outlines of plants and the rising sun.
From 1921 to 1923 were minted new coins for the Russian Federation, which had not yet been put into circulation.Their image has been decided to take new coins have the Soviet Union, but only with two changes.The first of them - on a small coin denominations of 10, 15 and 20 cents on the side with the number replaced by branches with leaves on the stalks of wheat, and the second - instead of the national coat of arms of the Russian coat of arms of the Soviet Union placed.
last February 24, 1924 the USSR silver coins were put into circulation.Thus originated a new monetary system on the ruins of the Russian Empire.
silver coins minted before 1931 and did so at the Leningrad Mint.Some part of fifty dollars, namely the issue in 1924 with the word "TURKISH" on the Edge, at the request of the new government minted in London at the Royal Mint.They were in circulation until the spring of 1961.
fifty dollars for rubles and applied silver 900 samples, and for the small coins with a low face value - 500 samples.In this small money was minted so small that they are among the rarest and most valuable coins of the period.Especially rare are considered money in 1931, as they have been preserved only in a few instances.Therefore, the value of silver coins taken this year may exceed the mark of 120 thousand. Rubles.
Numismatists always interested only in the money that are somewhat different from the rest and were released relatively small circulation.This small piece of metal can be concentrated important information about the history, culture, economics, etc.Just imagine how many different people could own one particular coin!
Collectible coins are very valuable from a cognitive point of view.Ancient and medieval money coins samples can be as a very powerful once empires and small states.These collections represent the money collected and systematized on one of the characteristics.It may be the coin of antiquity, or only related to the Roman Empire, with portraits of rulers in Europe or one denomination - Russian silver coins, fifty dollars, for example.