desire for aesthetics was seen in deep antiquity.Some people are asking themselves the question of how to develop the creativity of artists.This review is dedicated to the art such as design.The history of design, the appearance of the theory and the stages of formation - all considered further.Having made a little trip to the past, the reader will learn how to develop a style of interior decoration, clothing, landscape.
Translated from the Italian word "design" means "plan", "composition", "model".In Russian, it has appeared recently, but the art itself began to form many centuries ago.Modern professionals involved considered activity must know a lot of features of the subject areas and know how to use them in practice, creating projects.Master of his craft working in collaboration with architects, clients, builders, suppliers and contractors and organize the internal space.
history of design theory
first ideas of the relationship between beauty and benefits incurred by the
- In the middle of the XIX century, the development of industrial production created a need for a new activity aimed at drawing and making aesthetics.That is formed design.
- At the end of the XIX century were formed by the basic rules and principles of the theory, which later influenced the school Masters.So the design is to combine art and craft.
- At the beginning of the XX century artists took the top position in the industry.They developed the corporate identity of businesses and could affect the production of various electric appliances, cars.So the design is artistic and industrial activity.
- emergence of graduate school education due to the design in the XX century.
great contribution to the history of design theory of the origin have made and continue to make periodicals.
How did the design?1st and 2nd stages
formation of this art in Russia is intermittent: after high growth came low decay.But the strong point has always been aesthetics.The evolution of the design can be divided into several stages.
In the first phase (1917-1922) the creation of the design was carried out in a collision with production of mass agitation art and design of active outdoor gatherings and political rallies.During this period we have been used for new approaches to the development of advertisements, posters and book products, which was the beginning of the development of graphic design.
In the second phase (1923-1932), Russia became one of the main centers for the training of professional designers in production departments.At this time, we developed certain concepts, make a further development of the arts, and began to develop projects for the Development of dwellings, workplaces and public places.There was triumph in collages, font compositions, book designs, poster graphics.
history of design: 3rd stage
creative activity in the years 1933-1960 was stopped due to the implementation of the principle of standardization, applies not only to man, but also to create an environment.For this reason, it ended the era of conceptual aesthetic unity.The design is divided into several areas: object-household, decorative-design and engineering.
Evolution of design: 4th stage
The development of art was resumed on the fourth stage, which was significant in the history.In the early 60s there were the first theoretical developments in the field of web design.In 1961 it was created VNIITE (All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Technical Aesthetics).His publications have won first place in the European culture.Considered a creative activity became very popular.Many standards have been revised and all the attention was focused on consumer goods.Under the influence of Western European schools of graphic design to change the style of periodic releases.In the 70 years we were highly appreciated eclectic trends of retro-styles.
When there was private ownership and competition escalated (late 80s - early 90s), the Russian advertising has become an important tool for business promotion.It was then greatly increased interest in graphic design and increased production of publications, distributing goods and services.
Origin interior design
People have always sought to create a nice atmosphere in the house.That is why the services of professional designers are in demand at the moment.The history of interior design begins from the ancient times.Primitive man was considered a cave shelter, which he adorned with stones, skins, paintings on the walls, tree roots and other materials at hand.
Ancient Egyptian art began to take shape during the early kingdom.The culture was pronounced principles of monumentality and static.At this time the construction of above-ground tombs with burial spaces.The most important architecture became "Mastaba".The Middle Kingdom is considered the base period of the woodwork.In Egypt, for the first time there was a seat with backrest, which later became the template for all of the chairs, which came into modern design.
history of interior design complemented with architectural products made from ancient Greece: stone slabs, mosaic, wood, brick - all of this was used for the construction of temples.Walls and ceilings are plastered and decorated with paintings.A special place in the country concerned to do theater.Instead of doors in homes often used fabric curtains decorating the home environment.They applied mythological or historical images.Furniture decorated and inlaid pretty paintings.
Ancient Rome also left a mark in the history of interior design.The people of this country are actively built baths (ancient baths), interior trim that distinguish a real luxury: vaulted ceilings, mosaic floors, pools, gardens.In the context of often used gold, silver, marble, wood, bronze, ivory.
Gothic culture was formed in France.It is in this country to use twisted columns and pointed arches form.The walls are covered with stucco dwellings, as did the painting on the ceiling.The staterooms set of heraldic shields, weapons, and on the floor of the stele woven reed mats.
Features of formation of landscape design
Construction of the space around their house was relevant at all times.In this regard, the history of landscape design evolved along with humanity, although the name has appeared about 200 years ago.Whereas previously people were strongly tied to nature and keep the garden, now they create a special kind around your house for beauty.
first park to walk there from the beginning of the slave system and belonged to wealthy segments of society.The better the financial situation of the owner, the gardens were beautiful, the surrounding housing.Each country's landscape design developed in a different direction.
In ancient Egypt, priests were grown in different colors with subtle flavors and on the surface of the lotus ponds disposal.During the reign of Cleopatra cultivated roses.In Thebes it was widespread pergola is a structure of plants and grapes, drawing on the yard.
development of landscape art in Persia began with the creation of reserves with different kinds of animals (pigs, lions, artiodactyls), destined for hunting.It came from the Persians neatly clipped hedges, delivshie park in different areas.
China and Japan - countries, developing under the influence of ancient philosophy and religion, calling for unity between man and nature.Therefore, in the gardens of the residents present water bodies, stones or gazebo, creating a peaceful and harmonious design.
history of landscape design in Russia is similar to the European one.In the XVII century there were botanical greenhouses, and parks.Then they began to grow tulips, hyacinths and daffodils, who came from Holland.With the passage of time has changed lives and new styles is gradually replacing the old.Especially changes in the garden architecture evident in the XIX and XX century.
evolution in the world of fashion
history of fashion design began to take shape since ancient times, as people have always sought to create beautiful, warm and comfortable things.Depending on the culture, produced special outfits, hairstyles and accessories.Fashion design shared by nations on property and caste position (soldiers, officials, tradesmen, peasants).Active development of fashion began after the appearance of fabrics, threads and sewing machines.
are the primary source of fashion design department in France and Italy, which tailors have become real professionals.In the Middle Ages considered art is not developed, as the non-standard clothing is not welcomed.However, in the Renaissance, there was a change, and the history of fashion supplemented with new events: there was occasional clothes, underwear for women, as well as velvet and silk.The neckline was deeper, and increased low-cut dress.Zeitgeist is always greatly influenced the design.
history of women's clothing design of the XX century was supplemented by strict male models pants and jacket.They have left their mark, and the war, after which there were a coat.Currently, fashion is in every country, and designer show their works worldwide.
Design - direction of creative activity that never stops at that level.People have new needs and ideas, and the masters of their craft embody ideas into reality or create their own original style.Therefore this art is in constant development.