Migratory birds

migratory and wintering birds - warm-blooded creatures, whose body temperature averages around 41 ° C.

In the autumn of the year can be seen as some birds are grouped in flocks, to leave their homes and migrate to the edge of a warm climate.Representatives who migrate annually from nesting in wintering areas and always come back - it is migratory birds.They make up a third of all the birds of the world.

Migratory birds in Russia presented a large group of wetland and waterfowl species.

Groups and types

This group includes seven groups of birds, including over a hundred species:

  • loons;
  • grebes;
  • Ciconiiformes;
  • geese;
  • Pastushkova;
  • cranes;
  • waders.

Some migratory birds listed as endangered, and hunting them is prohibited in Russia.A list of this rather large black-and yellow-billed loon, certain types of herons, geese, cranes.

What causes birds to migrate?

every spring fills our forests, fields and ponds avian hubbub.It is the migratory birds return to the Russian breeding grounds.

his flights over sea and land birds make for a long time, long before the appearance of humans on Earth.Millions of years of the migration period contributed to the physiological and biological processes in many species appeared balanced with environmental conditions of different geographic areas.

Many issues associated with migrating birds.How do they orient themselves day and night to overcome thousands of kilometers?How can we explain their attachment to specific breeding grounds?Why chicks overcome enormous distances, flying to wintering in tropical areas, and how they can come back next spring to the places where they were born?

no answer to the question of how to define the term migratory birds travel.

Hops - a response to climate change and other environmental factors, through which birds are much lighter than the rest of the vertebrates, were able to expand their range.Each spring for several weeks migratory birds unerringly repeat the path that their ancestors overcame many thousands of years in the gradual settlement and expansion of the range.

Birds are constantly engaged in the search for the optimal habitat.They use physical mobility for better implementation of the biological desire of each species to produce offspring and survive.Birds nesting in the Arctic, for example, can feed chicks around the clock, thanks to the offensive at this time the polar day, allowing them to successfully grow offspring.

establish that waterfowl keep coming back to a specific nesting place, allowed the mass ringing of birds, which is now carried out systematically on all continents.These data are judged on the degree of permanence of breeding populations of ducks in a particular area, as well as resettlement and migration chicks.

However, under the influence of different factors that affect the state of the environment along the way they move, their location and the number can vary greatly.For example, because of the deteriorating environmental situation in the lower reaches of the Ob River in Tyumen as a result of oil development and destruction of habitats of birds, is their gradual shift to the south.

main way of seasonal migrations connect Africa and Eurasia, Southeast Asia and Eurasia, Australia and South and North America.Most often, the birds fly the shortest distance, but this way sometimes tortuous.For example, cranes deviate from the shortest distance to stop to rest.Migratory birds may be flying day and night.Fast flying representatives (swallows and swifts) sometimes feed on the fly, and make the flight in the afternoon.

wrens, cuckoos and other birds with a secretive lifestyle afternoon rest and eat, and make flights at night.

waterfowl travel at any time of the day.

small birds an hour to overcome not more than 50 km.Speed ​​Hawks 50-60 km / h, and ducks - almost 95 km / h.

Birds fly per day from 30 to 300 km.

afternoon they focus on the elements of the landscape and the sun, or the magnetic field when it is cloudy.

night birds can determine the direction of flight of the stars.