Forest birds.

In the world there are at least 8,600 different species of birds, including in our country - more than 700 species.In the woods, gardens and parks of the European part of the territory inhabited by 294 species.Various Russian Bird find shelter in the forests and in urban environments.

In our country, with its harsh climate, many species of birds migrate to winter in warmer climates, and those who remain are often migrate from the north to the central and southern regions.In severe frosts, and because of the cold and lack of food birds often die in large numbers.

Need bird food is very high due to the high mobility and metabolic rate.The daily amount of food they have about 1/4 the weight of your own body.Predatory birds fed once a day, granivorous - at least two, and entomophagous - about 5-6 times.During the growth of chicks need for feed is further increased.They grow very quickly, for a week birth weight increased by several times.

Forest birds Russia make up the largest group of species.Birds

are the true friends and saviors forests from pests.Some of the species - exclusively insectivores (nightjar, nuthatch, almost all kinds of songbirds).Other (tits, starlings, shrikes) insects account for the bulk of the diet.By granivorous and omnivorous birds are crows, bunting, bullfinch, crows, finches, woodpeckers and sparrows.But they fledge only insects.And with a strong breeding pests all birds, even the granivorous, feeding them exclusively.

Forest birds are distinguished not only by the nature of the diet, but also the views of nesting.In the hollows nests about 10 species of insectivorous birds and 10 species feeding on small rodents.The rest of the small nest on the ground and in the bushes.Dense undergrowth for them - the best habitat and protection against enemies.That is why in old forests, where there is no underbrush, little birds.

on the edges of woods, in parks and gardens live finches and cuckoos, nightingales make their nests in the bushes of wild cherry and elderberry along forest streams and rivers, tits like thicket, buntings and warblers are choosing small shrub or thick grass in the meadows and logging sites.

Forest birds help the forest grow.From seed to scatter their droppings, grow new bushes.Many birds (woodpeckers, jays, starlings, chickadees) hides tree seeds, acorns, nuts, in moss or old stumps.Of such forgotten or chosen not completely "caches" and then sprout new trees.Crows, magpies and jackdaws spreading seeds of garden plants, so that you can find in the woods in unexpected places.

Forest birds have many enemies.Especially a lot of birds are killed when they are incubating the eggs and feeding the chicks when the parents can not leave the nest and are particularly vulnerable.Because of predators, as well as from human hands to survive no more than a tenth of small birds that live in the forests near settlements.The parks and gardens, this percentage is even lower.

most serious enemies of birds (especially living near cities) - house cats.Far from dwelling places on flyers hunt foxes, ferrets, martens, weasels, stoats.For the ground-nesting birds are the enemies of hedgehogs and shrews.People also cause considerable harm to the birds deforestation and spraying pesticides.Thus, only a few forest birds live all tempered nature lifetime.And it is quite long: from jackdaws - 11 years, starlings - 10, at the blackbirds, robins and wagtails - more than 10, at the swallows and swifts - about 9, from finches - 7 years.Many birds can live even longer - up to 18 years, sparrows, gulls River 20, magpies - 21 years, nightingales - 25.

on the way to the far edge of the birds are able to develop a considerable speed.For small birds flying at a speed of 30 - 50 km / h, starlings - from 60 to 79 km / h, sandpipers - 55 - 86. Birds of prey (peregrine falcon) at a rate of 95 fly km / h, and an attack on prey- about 360 km / h.