Since ancient times, man enjoys all the benefits of nature, in Vol. H. And the Earth's interior.First, to work with the earth used the most primitive tools: pick, shovel, and so on. D. With the development of human progress needs to increase and needed better equipment.Now, the deepest hole drilled for the extraction of oil and water - no problem.This is done using special equipment.It uses a drill.This device, which makes a rotation through a recess in the ground.
Any tool has past.Bur - is an ancient thing.Archaeological excavations indicate that even 25 thousand years ago, it was used for drilling holes in a variety of primitive devices.
ancient Egyptians to build the pyramids used rotary drilling.In China, known today Confucius mentioned the drilling of wells in 600 BC.e.Their depth is 900 m. This, in turn, shows a good level of development of this technology already.It is known that drilling in Russia began to develop in the IX century.In general, it has been used for the ex
Of course, the first drilling techniques were primitive and incomplete.The walls of the wells often break and collapse.To avoid this, we laid into different styles: a hollow tree trunks, woven from bark or sheet metal pipes and so on. D.
was another serious problem - the remains of the rock drilling had to be constantly raising up.For this earth auger stopped and lifted the material used.All this is very hinders the process.But in 1846 an engineer Fauvel offered an effective solution to this problem.To do this, we have begun to use the washing wells.On the surface of the earth through special pipes pumped ordinary water, bringing rock up.This method has become especially popular, t. To. Provide virtually uninterrupted operation of the drilling rig.
In terms of tools, the original process is carried out by special chisel driving the downhole motor.Furthermore, the design consists of pipes transporting water and breed.
modern form electric drill was formed in 1938.We create it domestic and engineer Alexander Ostrovsky.
tool that has a long history and such a broad scope of use, and has a lot of modifications.
Depending on design, all the borax can be divided into mechanical and electrical.This is driven by the first power of the person, and the second current energy needs.Electric drill consists of a motor, the screw and handle.The advantage of the machine tool is completely independent of any power supply.Therefore, it is more portable and cheaper.Moreover, such a structure has a homemade drill.
Depending on the structure are distinguished:
Garden drill manual also can be divided into:
- Screw folding tool.It has the same construction but is composed of individual parts.It is convenient to transport and store.
- screw molded.One of the most common.It works only with fixed depth of wells.
- Ring molded drill.
modern drill - a device for the destruction of various species during the construction of the recesses of the cylindrical shape.
Drilling wells is essential for exploration and the search of different minerals.Also drill needed for immediate production.
There are several areas that require the use of such drilling:
- blasting.With the help of a drill to make holes diameter and depth required.Here lay the prepared explosives and a catalyst.To process was directed, needs very clear and careful calculation.
- Laying various underground utilities.This has a direct dial telephone, electricity and more.Through opened, they served to almost any depth.This is especially important for the construction of underground mines livelihood.
- notch solid minerals.In such cases, often using a special diamond drill.That tool bore holes neatly removed from the necessary formation.
- Draining wetlands.This is done by means of drainage.With the help of the drill is done a plurality of openings through which water leaves itself.This method has been used since ancient times.
- artificial consolidation of rocks.This is usually done at a depth of 30 m. Soils are fixed through the injectors, tampons, which are installed with the help of the Boers.
known that for more effective work is necessary to use special tools.But in particularly difficult cases, apply the whole industrial complexes.Therefore, man has learned to use a drill as the basis of an entire production line.With this tool you can not only buy but also to build their own.
Depending on the type of drilling distinguish:
1. Percussion.This, for example, the drill-bit of very hard metal.Most often used for superprochnogo rocks.
2. rotary tool.It applies a spiral drill.This device is used for a soft or loose rocks.
3. Combination drills.Combines the positive qualities of all instruments.
By the nature of destruction of rocks:
1. Continuous drilling.This involves the destruction of the entire area of the face.
2. Core drilling.It is used often in the research.Rock is broken only by ring.
In view of the working tool drilling mechanisms are divided into:
1. Drobyasche-shearing.For this purpose, there are special tool teeth.
2. cutting-shearing.Powered by the blades.
3. cutting-abrading.It uses diamond and carbide parts.
By way of influence on the breed:
1. Mechanical drill.The principle of operation and uses rotational and shock technology.A classic example - a drill manual for the pillars.It is indispensable in the country and in the private residential building.
2. non-mechanical drill.This hydraulic, electrophysical or thermal tools.Today, these devices are not widely used and are in the process of development and improvement.
Drilling equipment the Soviet Union and Russia
fairly large amount of time in the country's history account for the Soviet period.It was then that industry, science and agriculture got the greatest development.The legacy of these times is still used in many industries.And some samples and are now proud of the domestic industry.
in the history of drilling equipment includes such facilities:
1. BKM-303.This machine is used for the installation of various poles and piles in frozen soils.Drill bit diameter of about 80 cm, load capacity up to 1.5 tons.
2. BM-251.This prototype was presented in 1969.Its purpose - work on wells for explosions.Drilling depth of these cars is 2.5 m. The device consists of two working bodies with a diameter of 1.1 m.
3. Attachments drilling equipment.This mobile unit was first released in 1982.Purpose - drilling in the frozen soil.
4. Machine for the thermo-mechanical drilling.This experimental model for blasting.
5. BM-1001.This earth auger using shock-rotary drilling is working on geological exploration.
From what and how to drill on their own?
in any particular country house has a lot of problems that can be solved only with the help of special tools.This may be the organization of water supply, and installation of all kinds of bearings, and planting and care of plants, and so on. D.
course, everything you need can be easily found in any hardware store.But it is much cheaper and more practical tools to make their own hands.It does not take a lot of time and effort.
Homemade drill done by elementary tools that are in almost every home or garage.This will require grinding wheel for turning cutters and welding machine.
unit will consist of drill itself, a special metal pole and twisting the handle.The work may also need armature length of about 2 m and a metal sheet.
step instructions for assembling
Boer - a pretty simple device.But even in this tool has several features.So, before you get down to business, and to construct, for example, a home-made hand-drill for the pillars needed to study carefully the instructions.
distinguish several stages:
1. Assembling and securing the working of the blade.This will require a strong sheet metal.And the need to pre-determine the type of work for which the drill will be used.Blanks should be 5-10 mm larger than the required diameter of the holes.
2. Preparing the main base.To this end, the rod is taken, which is firmly secured in a vise.It then made a couple of holes.Here are the nuts are tightened with the finished blades.It will be appreciated that these holes should be greater than 1-2 mm.
3. Giving the desired shape of the blade.This will require a Bulgarian.To give the blades a peculiar kind of screw groove is cut.Then sharpen the lower part.
4. Acute tip.It is necessary to work with a variety of hard rock and frozen ground.The end can be sharpened or pre-cooked weld drill.In this must be below the helical grooves of the rack.
5. Handle.It can be welded or bolted firmly bolted, which will adjust the depth of drilling.Pre-need to be concerned about the wear and corrosion of structural elements.Therefore drill manual process requires special structures and covered with paint.And only after that it can be fully used.
Diamond drill: Properties and application
needs of modern society is constantly growing.Therefore, science and progress is not standing still.Since the creation of the first drill there was a need to do well not only in various rocks and frozen ground, but also in very hard materials.
Therefore, new powerful tools for working in all conditions.One of these is a diamond drill.This device has excellent performance through a special spraying.
As is known, the diamond - the hardest material on earth.The quality it surpasses even concrete and metal.But technology using diamond-coated, appeared only in the middle of the last century.It applies only in the countries of the West.In Russia, this technology came and did a few years ago.This work is not only a diamond drill, and the diamond wire and cutting discs.They differ in the scope of application and the device.
diamond drill is a hollow cylinder of metal.On its edge soldered diamonds.This tool is used to cut materials such as:
- foam concrete, reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete.
- marble and artificial stone.
- asphalt concrete pavement.
Diamond drill works on the principle of grinding when using an appropriate spraying and vpaek material breaks down and erased.It is widely used in the construction and dismantling, as well as various kinds of production, and even in the scientific and research.
What applies auger?
Modern equipment is widely used not only in industry but also in the household.Drill screw is most commonly used by non-professionals in the garden, in the country and in the private sector.He is a special tube, shrouded steel tape.The screws are fastened together and figure carving connection.The principle of operation of this instrument is based on rotary drilling, wherein rock destruction is done by loosening and cutting.The shredded material is delivered to a special screw top.
This kind of equipment, as well as many others, has a number of features.The main advantages are the following:
- Easy operation.Due to its design to use this tool easily and conveniently.
- Reducing the number of tripping operations and increase the speed of drilling.
- versatility.This tool is suitable for a wide variety of jobs: construction, research and others. Any manual drill hole is done quickly and easily.You do not need to be a professional.
There are types of tools used in the auger drilling:
- drag bit.
- impassable and communicating construction screws.
- drill rod.
- Shnekolovki, auger borer and subs.
few interesting facts
Almost every object or tool in our everyday life has a story.During this time accumulates a huge variety of interesting facts and incidents.So today, with the usual drill:
1. The deepest borehole artificial - it Kola.Its drilling began in 1970.Prior to 1990, we dug as much as 12 262 meters.This used a conventional earth drill.
price of such instrument now depends on the country of manufacture and the complexity of the equipment.Hand tool is usually around 1500-2000 rubles, while foreign plants - from 25 000 and above.
2. Russia has huge reserves of underground fresh water.And the most efficient way of mining today is drilling.Even so, only used 10% of the total reserves.
3. Push-to-use diamond coatings for drilling rigs after the invention of synthetic diamond.For the first time, such tools have appeared in Europe.And then spread to the whole world.
4. Diamond rope and disks used in a standard drilling equipment, were due to the development of technologies, materials and construction.They are designed specifically for cutting very hard rocks.Diamond deposition may be a drill and foundation.This greatly speeds up and simplifies the work.
5. Fuel by drilling wells were first mined in China.It was 2,300 years before the Europeans and Americans.