Every gardener wants to get a decent crop.Growing in the area drain with proper care will please its fruits, of which you can make jam, compotes do.In addition, the drain has healing properties.
How to plant a plum
best time for planting - spring.Pit prepare for two weeks before the procedure.Its diameter of about 80 cm, depth - 70 cm. It is necessary to add the fertile soil humus, organic and mineral fertilizers and mix.Soil mixture is put into a hole and well watered.
roots of trees sprinkle the top layer of soil, slightly tamped.Planted plum immediately watered 3-4 buckets of water, soil, mulch around.
How to care for a plum?
In order to get a good crop, you need a competent and regular maintenance.Plum is a water-demanding plant, so it should be watered regularly and abundantly, especially in hot weather.
In the first three years, there is no need to make fertilizer, but then, during flowering, you need to feed the tree, using nitrogen fertilizer.In autumn feed organic fertilizers (manur
course, dressing plum spring is very important, but in addition it is necessary to protect wood from pests and diseases, to grow, healthy and gave a good harvest.It is important to take precautions when handling chemicals.
no less important element of care is pruning plum.The moldable pruning is carried out to ensure that the fruits get enough sun and air.For older trees, rejuvenating pruning is carried out, which will extend the life of the tree.
consider in detail each step of care plum.
How to cut the plum in the spring?
important stage of care is its tree pruning, which should be carried out every year to prevent thickening of the crown.Such care is necessary for the plum tree to grow strong and healthy.The best time for this procedure - spring (late March - early April).
first step in pruning is thinning.This removes the excess branches and cut the shoots that grow upwards.
The next stage is called shortening.It should be cut last year's growth.This is to ensure that next year new fruit tree had branches.
Pruning plum carried out with the help of special tools.The sections to be processed garden pitch or special tools.
formation is thin-tiered crown is happening for five years.At the bottom you need to leave five to seven large branches that are at an angle of 40-50 degrees from the trunk.Between the ground and skeletal branches should be a distance of about 25 cm, it is best if they are looking in different directions.The main branches of the crown regarding the tiers should be located as follows: two of the three branches of the lower tier on the same level.
to form bunk krona, the two main branches of the second tier must be on a different level.
Pruning young tree
As spring plum crop in the first year of life?Plum different non-uniform growth of shoots, so pruning of young trees have to produce two to three times a year, with a central trunk are pruned once a year.In the first year of life trees prishodit laying the foundations for the growth and development of skeletal branches.It was during this period it is necessary to determine the height and shape of the tree.
Pruning young plum follows.Please shorten the lower branch to the level of a good kidney, the upper part is cut with underdeveloped kidneys.Then shorten the remaining branches, in addition to the conductor.They shorten the cut to the level of the lower branches.The conductor is cut so that it was 20-25 cm above or below the other branches (depending on what is necessary to form a crown shape).
Skeleton crown is formed by undercutting or tilting the branches that are growing in the wrong direction, so that they were in poluskeletnom position.
Such action is repeated until, until you have laid all the younger branches of the tree.
Pruning plum in the second year of life
procedure is carried out in mid-March, during this period wound healing is faster.Primarily selected skeletal threads 3-4, which is cut in half or one third.
During the growing season, the formation of shoots on the trunk.They cut five to seven centimeters.In the second growing season shoots are cut entirely.
Pruning old tree
Many gardeners are interested in the question of how to cut the plum in the spring, when it is no longer young?Pruning of old trees continues for about 15 years, until the plums height of about two meters.Then you need to cut off the main trunk and the biggest branch.This procedure stops the growth of plums, so you need to ensure that the krona was well covered.
old trees often cut only weak and damaged branches.How to cut the plum in the spring, when the growth of new shoots is suspended or reduced yields?In this case, a rejuvenating pruning.To this end, in early spring cut the old skeletal branches.The resulting wound smeared garden pitch.When pruning large branches, so as not to damage the wood, they are sawed from below, then harvested length.
To cut grow new shoots.Among them select 3-4 most powerful, removing the rest in July.The entire complex of anti-aging treatments need to stretch for 2-3 years so as not to deplete the tree.
plum tree growing needs "of nitric support."To this sprayed drain water diluted in urea (2 tbsp. L. L 10) in the first half of May.Plums, who entered the stage of fruiting feed follows.Before tree blossom, you must loosen the soil around it, moisten and pour a solution of urea and potassium sulfate (2 Art. L. 10 liters of water).
Next dressing plum spring is when the berries are poured.We use a solution - Urea (2 tbsp. L.), Nitrophoska (3 tbsp. L.), Water (10 L).
Once the tree otplodonosivshie, it fed the third time.For irrigation water (10 L) were dissolved potassium sulfate (2 tbsp. L.) And superphosphate (3 tbsp. L.).
In addition, each year during the period of fruiting in the soil around the plums are added humus dung (1 bucket), mixed with hydrated lime or chalk (1 tbsp.).Such care plums will provide a good harvest.
protection against pests
for the prevention and treatment of the fungus is necessary to remove the diseased leaves, shoots and fruits.All damaged branches must be burned.Gardening cement or lime milk with the addition of copper sulfate is used for decontamination sections.In the spring before the leaves of a tree is treated with Bordeaux fluid.
in the fight against the plum moth effectively use "bitoksibatsillin", "Lepidocide", "Gaupsina."Processing plum spring held 4-6 times in 7-10 days.
To prevent pollination of plum aphid use special drugs or sprayed leaves at blooming, used extracts of plants: garlic, chamomile, onion, mugwort, yarrow, dandelion, celandine.
GUMMOSIS also negatively affects the development of the tree.The gum comes bacterial growth.GUMMOSIS arises in case a tree growing in the cheese and cold place.For the protection you need to clean all wounds with a knife, and to gloss over the garden pitch.Large wounds tied bandage.
Care plum tree is not much different from the care of other fruit trees.The main thing - to do everything correctly and on time.A knowledge of how to cut the plum in the spring to feed and protect it from pests will help to get a good harvest every year.