Actinidia samoplodnye quite interesting ornamental plant.Its fruit is extremely beneficial to human health, delicious and flavorful.To grow and care for plants is easy.In addition, Actinidia gives high and stable annual yields.Fruits of different commodity and excellent portability, can be stored for a long time in a cool place.Detailed information about the cultivation of Actinidia and its content in the home is provided below.
Description Actinidia samoplodnye
above the plant has several names.This Actinidia aquifolium and Actinidia samoplodnye and kiwi, and pineapple atinidiya.The plant is, first of all, a spectacular tree-creeper, which is characterized by a beautiful view of decorative and edible fruit.Recent feature extremely high content of useful minerals and vitamins.
This plant is characterized by a stable, high yield sufficient frost, unpretentious to the growing conditions, resistance to diseases and pests.
Note that Actinidia samoplodnye does not require a male plant: it is well-pol
Actinidia Fruits can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 2 months, but be sure to do to comply with the strict temperature range: from 0 to 2 degrees Celsius.
above the plant has the following characteristics:
- has a height of up to 25 meters (Class Argut), up to 6 m (type kolomikta);
- trunk diameter of up to 5 cm;
- high growth rate of plant shoots (in the season up to 2 m);
- fibrous root system, skeletal roots;
- minus the maximum temperature that can withstand the plant Actinidia - a -30 degrees Celsius;
- kiwi that came into fruition, is more cold-resistant than non-bearing;
- mid-August - a period of fruit ripening;
- fruit plants have round or oblong shape, light to dark green in color;
- taste of fruits - from sour-sweet to sweet-insipid;
- plant photophilous;
- culture loves moisture, but excessive amounts can not stand it;
- not recommended spring pruning.
It should be noted that the plant Actinidia can grow and bear fruit well for about 30 years.
Useful properties Actinidia
Fruits of the above plants are extremely beneficial to the human body.In its composition they contain:
- carotene, niacin, askorbinku, vitamin B5;
- minerals: potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus;
- organic acid;
It should be noted that the fruit of this plant contain 5 times more vitamin C than black currants and 10 times more than in citrus.
These fruits significantly enhance the immune system of hypertensive people with diabetes, the elderly and children.Particularly useful kiwifruit patients that have problems with vision.
Types samoplodnye Actinidia
perennial woody vines there are about 30 species in the genus.All varieties of Actinidia are characterized by high annual fruitfulness and beautiful decorative appearance.In Russia, following the above known plants:
- Kiev large-fruited;
- The September;
- Actinidia Argut samoplodnye.
- Clara Zetkin;
- samoplodnye Actinidia Kolomikta;
pollination of plants is done by wind or insects.Interestingly, this process can be carried out at sufficiently large distances: up to half a kilometer.For example, some types of interspecies kolomiktovyh and self pollinated.Vintage in this case goes low.
At one point woody vines are able to grow more than 70 years.
Yield vine depends on its type.Argutovye provide the greatest amount of fruit - up to 250 kg, kolomiktovye - only up to 3 kg.It is also different and the most fruit weight, for example, are polygamous fruit weighing 6 grams.
Recently in America, breeders have brought a new variety called Actinidia Kiwi.So he is able to bear fruit weighing up to 330 grams.
With regard to the harvest, the grade of the Giralda and all kolomiktovye fruits are collected in late August, and the rest - until mid-September.Although, if you want to gain more in the fruit sugars, remove the kiwi closer to the frost.
If the crop harvested at temperatures below zero, it will not be long stored in the refrigerator.
above the plant reproduces both cuttings and seeds.Seed stratification is carried out over 2 months.Before this process, seeds were steamed.Then they are mixed with sand and slightly moistened.Thereafter, the seeds wrapped in a tissue and placed into a cooling chamber where the temperature must be maintained around 5 degrees Celsius.Recommended daily airing their fifteen minutes at room temperature.
After the above process stratification of the seeds planted in light soil, which is pre-steamed.Shoots appear early on: in two weeks.During the first year they grow slowly.But they are not recommended for anything to feed.
Young seedlings of Actinidia in the first winter is better to keep in a cool place.Only desirable plant in early spring.
If Actinidia propagated by cuttings, it is recommended to cut them with two or three buds.Also leave a shortened upper leaf.Cuttings is recommended to put on the day in a glass of distilled water.Only after this they can be planted in a container with the substrate.As the latter can be used safely peat or sand.Important: Do not fall asleep with the kidney substrate leaf!After planting the cuttings they need to be watered with water, and shelter film.
To cuttings are well rooted, you must provide them with the temperature conditions (18 degrees Celsius), humidity higher than the average, and access to sunlight.Once a day is recommended to spray the cuttings with the spray.
seedlings that were grown from cuttings will begin to bear fruit in two or three years.
soil for plants above
Actinidia seedlings prefer a variety of soils, except for intermittent clay soils, which are located close to the ground water.Breeders recommend to do for plants good drainage.Therefore, tree creepers are best placed on the slopes of the drain water, elevated areas.This is to prevent stagnation of water in the roots of plants.
intensive growth of Actinidia noted on the acidic and weakly acidic, organically fertilized soil mixes.But in any case they should not contain lime.The plant does not tolerate this dressing.Also under Actinidia is not recommended to apply calcium chloride.
It should be noted that the plant is strictly prohibited after Actinidia Actinidia.Undesirable neighbors for the above plant is apple.It is best to plant Actinidia near the black currant.
no circumstances should not be permitted digging the soil around the tree creeper.The most we can do is to conduct small-scale loosening.
samoplodnye Actinidia: planting and care
Plants are planted in the spring to a depth of 70 cm. In each hole gardeners are advised to make a little bit of fertilizer: about 10 kg of humus and the usual 100 grams of superphosphate.It should be noted that the planting is carried out in early spring of Actinidia.
to the bottom of the well, first you need to put drainage, as which can act stones, concrete block or broken bricks.
Plants are planted at a distance of 2.5 m. Before planting the vine tree, its roots dipped in a clay mash.
In addition, breeders recommend 10-15 female plants one male plant - for better pollination.
Care actinides is as follows:
- Before flowering fertilize the tree creeper phosphorus.
- autumn feed Actinidia humus, potassium salt, superphosphate and ammonium nitrate.
- plants useful for mulching the soil with humus, sawdust or peat layer of 12 cm.
- addition, Actinidia the winter hiding to prevent freezing of young plants.
Conditions of Actinidia
above plant unpretentious, but still demands the attention of some.Tree climber prefers to grow in the sun, but feels good and in the shade.
Conditions of Actinidia following:
- important to build support for the plant.
- give it extra watering in hot weather.
- during fruiting vines the soil around the tree is kept in fallow.
samoplodnye Pruning Actinidia
This action can not be carried out:
- early spring;
- in intensive sap flow (due to the loss of sap becomes weak);
- in late summer (can cause kidney awakening on the shoots of the current year).
ideal time for pruning is the period after flowering plants.Also Actinidia pruning is carried out in late autumn.At this time, you can thin out the plants, cut loose twigs, remove podmerzli tips on the shoots.
Pests and diseases Actinidia
above plant is resistant to various diseases.Breeders note the following diseases that can affect Actinidia:
- fillostiktoz leaves (brown spots);
- fruit rot on the berries.
should be noted that to deal with the above infections affected the fruit and leaves are collected and destroyed.
dangerous pests for Actinidia are cats who love to gnaw young shoots and roots of the plant sap.Therefore, it is important to woody vines to fence mesh wire, and the top cover.
Calendar work to care for the above plant
to the plant grew rapidly and sufficiently good fruit, it is important to carry out the necessary work in time for the care and maintenance of Actinidia:
- in April removed cover from a young tree vines.This is the time when the landing is carried Actinidia.
- In May, growers are advised to feed the tree-creeper is organic fertilizer.Also this month recommended to hoeing, weeding the soil around Actinidia.If there is too dry May weather, gardeners advise watering plants and mulching the soil.
- In June, it is desirable to ensure the plant to obtain the necessary amount of moisture.It is also important to spend a bit of weeding and loosening the soil.At this time carried out and sliced green cuttings.
- In July, except for weeding, cultivation and irrigation, it is important to tie the plant.It is also necessary to remove excess shoots.
- harvested in August.After harvesting it is recommended to feed the plant with minerals and organic fertilizers.
- in September and harvested.
- In October and November Actinidia pruning is carried out, which takes place for the formation of a bush.Although above the plant and has a high resistance to frost, all exactly is important to have time to hide the young vines in the winter tree to sub-zero temperatures.
Interesting facts about Actinidia
Did you know that:
- content askorbinki with fruit above the plants could only compete wild rose;
- 1 or 2 berries Actinidia provide the body with the daily requirement of vitamin C;
- 700 berries above the plants cover the annual demand for askorbinku to humans;
- for a family of 4 people is enough to have only one woody bush vines to provide each member the annual rate of vitamin C.
As used Actinidia?
Fruits of the above plants are actively used in cooking.Harvest them for the winter: canned and dried.
From the fruit of Actinidia prepare jam, squeeze juice, make cocktails.Also, use the above fruits to decorate cakes and other sweets for desserts.
The most popular Actinidia or dried raisins that resembles its appearance dried grapes (raisins).
When canning fruits Actinidia experts recommend adding citric acid, as in the processed form, they have the flavor with mild acidity.
samoplodnye Actinidia - a plant that can not only beautify the infield, but also to give an extremely delicious and healthy fruit.This is a godsend for the adventurous gardeners.