Vintage and lifetime vines largely due to proper care, the timely processing of bushes of different diseases, proper pruning and preparation for winter.Experienced gardeners know that the autumn grape processing has its own specifics.It consists in carrying out decontamination measures allowing to overcome existing disease and prevent infection of healthy bushes.
What you need to handle the grapes
Summer is over, the yield on the vine almost cut.After fruiting vines becomes weak as to expend energy on ripening of brushes.At that time, the vine formed buds, carrying the harvest next year.The next task is to process the grape growers after harvesting, when you can not be afraid to use the processed berry.Especially it concerns early grades.No need to wait for the Mid-Autumn treatment to prevent the spread of disease.
weakened plants are more susceptible to a variety of fungal and infectious diseases, so the processing of grapes in September, will help meet these challenges.
Prepare grapes for the
harvest next year largely depends on the state of the bush after winter, the correct tab generative buds, from disease prevention lozy.Zdorove vine depends on the quality of all the stages of growing grapes.
Here are the main factors affecting the winter season:
- the health of the bush;
- a sufficient amount of nutrients;
- vine ripened xylem;
- correct autumn cropping and processing of grapes;
- quality insulation bush.
If the plant is hit by infectious diseases, quality winter becomes much worse.Some pathogens continue to ruin the plant and in the winter under the snow, and in the spring these shrubs are poorly developed and they clearly showed signs of grape disease.
If vines are not overgrown, gardeners conducted preventive processing of grapes in the spring, the bushes are in the fall will be quite suitable for high-quality winter.
processing grapes for the winter is to spray infested bushes fungicide systemic action.This will help reduce the harmful effects of the pathogen, the vines will have more chances to accumulate more nutrients, which then move into the underground part of the bush, which contributes to the maturing of the grape xylem.After all, in the winter there will be a bush by the reserved substances, and thanks to these reserves in spring new shoots will go into growth.
grape vine diseases can be divided into two categories, caused by infection and non-infectious.Non-infectious diseases are not transmitted from an infected bush plant health.Such diseases arise due to the high content of soil salts and acids and alkalis fault.Another cause of the disease may be low content of nutrients and moisture in the soil, as well as various violations of the integrity of the vines.Cause of the disease may be different mites, leaf rollers, snails and slugs.
Bushes affected by non-infectious diseases, become weak, their productivity decreases.These plants can easily cling infection.It can be causative agents of diseases such as anthracnose, mildew, false mildew, gray and white rot.
Grape Anthracnose is caused by parasitic fungi that begin to proliferate in wet conditions on the leaves, branches and inflorescences appear as brownish spots that turn into ulcers, leading to tissue death.
most harmful disease is considered to be false mildew, caused by the obligate fungi, which are also beginning to spread in humid weather.Appear on the leaves, shoots a round of oily stains, covered with white dust.Over time, these cells stain die, which leads to shrinkage of the fabric.Inflorescences and fruits are also susceptible to infection, which largely reduces the yield of the bush.
Powdery mildew or oidium like a downy, just plant more strewn with gray-white dust, over time, the affected parts of the plant die, including the ovary.
Another type of fungal infection is a white and gray mold.White rot of grapes affects mainly berries and stems, is manifested in the form of brownish-purple spots, which are then made soft.Such benefits or part of the shoot dry out.
gray rot of grapes infects all parts of the vine.Affected areas turn brown with gray furry coating, which also leads to necrosis of infected tissues.
Chemical treatment of vines with fungicides
Autumn processing of grapes affected infectious disease is spraying the bush chemicals inhibit the growth and development of pathogenic fungi.By the function is divided into protective fungicides and fungicides for treatment.The first type is used prophylactically to prevent disease spread to vines.Fungicides for the treatment of already infected plants are treated to suppress the growth of harmful fungi.
also distinguish fungicides topical and systemic action.Locally acting fungicides do not fall into the grapes and disinfected only the surface, that is, they are a contact.The treatment of such substances should be carried out carefully, covering all areas of the plant, the leaves are applied on both sides, at least eight times a year.It is important to start using the local action fungicides, otherwise they will fail.
In this case it is necessary to apply a systemic active substances, which penetrate deep into the plant, disinfect the affected tissue.They are used when the first signs of the disease.These fungicides are superior local action for speed of action, more resistant to wash-out, which allows them to use less.To avoid habituation, should alternate chemicals.
iron and copper sulfate for processing grapes
proven remedy for the treatment of vines from the molds and different kinds of ticks is considered to be a copper and iron sulfate.
Copper sulfate - is highly water soluble powder is light blue, used as a fungicide for the treatment of the vines.For best effect can be combined with lime.
Autumn grapes processing copper sulfate is produced after pruning bushes.Vine disinfected with copper sulfate, diluted in 0.1 kg desyatilitrovoe a bucket of water.It is necessary to wait for the dry bush, and then close the vines for the winter.
Use as iron sulfate at a concentration of 0.6 kg desyatilitrovoe bucket.
Such processing grapes for the winter solution of copper or iron sulfate allows to kill pathogens that are on the outside of the shoots, and is not suitable for disposal deeply entrenched infection.
Preparations for the treatment of grapes
addition of iron and copper sulfate processing of grapes is done in the fall and other fungicides.Thus, against grape anthracnose, downy mildew, rot of various kinds of substance used for local and systemic effects, such as "Bordeaux mixture", "Antrakol" "Acrobat" "Ridomil".
To kill ticks, use sulfur colloid and "Tiovit" and against leaf rollers that affects inflorescence use tobacco dust, or infusion of chamomile.
processing circuit grapes
One method of maintaining health vine during the growing season is the right tying the shoots, thinning vines pasynkovanie bush bushes regular inspection for the presence of disease.When identifying any signs of the disease can be carried out appropriate treatment fungicides.Cut off affected shoots and leaves, and then burn them.
treatment of diseases of grapes in the fall is the final step in the fight against diseases.
Once collected fruits, spend processing bush chemicals for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.
Features pruning vines
Autumn treatment of diseases of grapes has been carried out.At the end of the growing season is necessary to take care of the pruning bush as much over the summer vine grew, and as such it is inconvenient for the winter shelter, take a lot of covering material.In addition, this vine will ripen more difficult, which negatively impact on the wintering grounds.Pruning shrubs is better not to wait until spring, because of the increase in sap flow will be a long time to heal the wounds cut, the plant will become weaker.
pruning is best done in the fall, before frost.Podmerzshie shoots break easily by twisting, and hard to dig the soil.
on young shoots of this year, make oblique cuts directed by the kidneys.This will save the eyes from falling into the juice at the beginning of the new season.Slice do so to escape remained a piece of the kidney, it will not dry out run.If you remove the annual stalks on the mainline, it is not necessary to store the pieces of the young shoots.The sections should be smooth.Pruning a bush big influence on the life of the vine.Improper trimming leads to long overgrown wounds.
for pruning grapes used such tools as garden shears, a hacksaw or knife.All tools should be sharp.Clippers better cut twigs and shoots of this year, as last year's best large hacksaw.Sections vines should not flatten out on the pruner.
Steps pruning grapes
correct circumcision may revive weak, hopeless vines.In early autumn, the shoots are removed in the main annual shoots, the length of which reached half a meter from the ground, up to the first level of the crossbar support.Shoots on the sleeves, which grew above the second rung, shortened by 10 per cent of the total length.Just spend pasynkovanie.
in the middle of autumn, when the leaves crumble, choose two of the most advanced vine.Escape, which grew out of the bottom of the sleeves shortened so that there is about four kidneys.It will be for the replacement of the mote.We form a fruit arrow of the shoot on the opposite side, which left up to twelve buds.As a result, pruning is obtained from the trunk of a bush that grows vertically, and sleeves with eyes.
Pruning grapes before winter
Autumn grape processing using secateurs leads to the formation of a bush, ready for sheltering for the winter.A suitable length of the main shoot is cut to 12 buds.The number of left kidney with a stock, because they can be damaged during storage in the winter.Furthermore, such a length will be optimal for binding shoots, their instillation into the ground or sheltering.
young shrubs pruned using a short crop, but for the old bushes using average crop.Do not leave a lot of shoots, as thickening of the bush leads to poor ventilation in the summer of next year.